Who is Mahmud Raif Efendi?

Who is Mahmud Raif Efendi?

He was the first diplomat to serve as chief clerk in the Ottoman Embassy in London. Due to his anglophilia, he gained the nickname ‘English Mahmut’. He instigated the Kabakçı Mustafa Rebellion of 1808, which brought death to him as well. This rebellion caused the deposing and subsequent murder of Sultan Selim III, after which Istanbul became a lawless city controlled by thugs for almost one and a half years. During this time, the Wahhabi riot broke out in Arabia but the Ottomans failed to quickly suppress it because of its domestic problems. The effects of this rebellion are felt to this day. Raif Efendi’s book on his trip to Britain clearly demonstrates his deep admiration of that country.

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