Hungarian Ármin Vámbéry, who had multiple titles before his name, like traveler, explorer, dervish, lecturer, author and international negotiator, was a professor of oriental languages at the Royal University of Pest. He came to the Ottoman Empire to study Turkology in Central Asia and spied on the Ottoman Sultans for the British deep state. He was raised Jewish, but later converted twice. He first became a Christian, then a Muslim. He spoke five languages.
Despite having lost his faith at a young age, he disguised himself as a dervish traveling around Central Asia. He subscribed to Darwinist/materialist thinking. In 1857, he arrived at Istanbul and began giving private lessons at the Palace. He was constantly by the side of Sultan Abdul Hamid II and gave private French lessons to Midhat Pasha. He was the only person that could gain the trust of Abdul Hamid II in a very short amount of time.
Sultan Abdul Hamid II called Vámbéry to Turkey in the 1880s. Consequently, he stayed at Yıldız Palace as the Sultan’s special guest. When Lord Salisbury saw that Vámbéry was able to enter the Palace, he invited him to the Foreign Office and tasked him with the duty of spying on the Sultan.
Owing to his linguistic abilities, Vámbéry was hired as a translator by the Ottoman Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Recognizing the potential Vámbéry represented, the Western media also hired him as Istanbul correspondent, hoping to benefit from his intelligence and observations. He was received with great enthusiasm particularly in Britain, and dinners were held in his honor; he even received an invitation from Queen Victoria.
The House of Commons raised the question whether there was any truth to the rumors that Vámbéry went to Abdul Hamid II on a special mission assigned by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and if the rumors were true, what the mission involved. The answer was clear in stating that the rumors were completely baseless. However only one month prior, Vámbéry had gone to Istanbul upon instructions from Lord Salisbury and submitted a long, confidential report to the Foreign Office on Abdul Hamid II and the Ottoman Empire.
Sultan Abdul Hamid II said, ‘I also wish very much to reach a deal with the British; I will not hesitate to offer the necessary compromises, as long as they are willing, too.’ He even offered an alliance to the British by means of Vámbéry.(The Spy in the Palace: Documents Tell About the Rule of Abdul Hamid II and the British Spy Jewish Vambery] Istanbul, November, 1991, p. 252)